> This pattern [Leninist] became deeply embedded in progressive politics and has long since spread well beyond any form of Marxism.

Do you think the connection comes from common institutional descent, or from convergent evolution? And in either case, do you think it is naturally limited to the left?

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Great question. Common descent is a major factor, but any form of politics of the transformative future is likely to adopt some form of the Jacobin model: politics unlimited in ambit (everything is politicised) and in means. As for being limited to the left, no. Fascism is Jacobin nationalism and Nazism is Jacobin Aryanism. If Lenin is Marx + Robespierre, Mussolini is Mazzini + Robespierre and Hitler is Houston Stewart Chamberlain + Robespierre.

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